Biodiesel, Potential Business for Alternative Fuels

Petroleum is a fossil energy sources which are used as raw materials in the domestic refineries and to export as a source of foreign exchange. Fuel refinery is among others consists of premium, kerosene, diesel oil (ADO), diesel oil and fuel oil are used to meet energy needs in the sector of electricity generation, transport, industry and households. The use of fossil fuels (fossil fuel) is still very large in Indonesia, but its availability is slowly diminishing, non-renewable, and requires a very long time to be produced. To reduce this dependence, then  is the development of environmentally friendly alternative fuels such as biodiesel. The use of biodiesel as a renewable energy source which can be one option to help handle the pressure of rising demand, especially diesel or diesel oil in Indonesia.

Biodiesel is defined as the esters of fatty acids of vegetable oils and animal oils. Biodiesel is an alternative fuel that is very potential to be developed derived from plant oils, animal fats or waste oil through a process of transesterification with alcohol. Biodiesel is a fuel future that will replace fossil fuels depleting future. Biodiesel is believed to be more environmentally friendly than conventional fossil-fuel. Biodiesel provides less pollution than petroleum-based fuels, other than that biodiesel can be used without modification of the diesel engine (Zhang et al., 2003).

Development of biodiesel as a renewable fuel based on vegetable oils is a positive thing, because the situation of the production-consumption of crude oil and diesel fuel has reached alarming levels, while domestic potential diversity of biological resources are very abundant. Therefore, biodiesel has a huge business potential today and in the future. Raw material for making biodiesel typically derived from vegetable oil raw materials of agricultural products. As an example:

The United States uses soybean oil / soybean oil, Spanish olive oil / olive oil, Italian with sunflower oil / sunflower oil, Mali and South Africa using jatropha oil, coconut oil Philippines, Malaysian palm oil / palm oil. In Indonesia has been developed biodiesel from raw material jatropha oil, palm oil, peanut oil and waste cooking oil / used frying oil. The level of cooking oil consumption in Indonesia is very high illustrate the great potential for the use of used cooking oil.

In addition to some of the material above was been investigated also use bran crude oil as raw material for biodiesel production. Bran is a byproduct of milling grain into rice. Based on research, the rice milling process only produces 55 percent of the whole rice grains. This means that, there are many other waste materials, other than rice such as rice broken 15 per cent, 20 per cent of skin and fine bran and bran 10 percent. Rice bran oil contains fatty acids, biologically active compounds and antioxidant compounds (oryzanol, tocopherols, tocotrienols, phytosterols, polyphenols and squalene), which until now has not been widely used. The use of lower-priced crude oil nonedible with utilization of by-products is expected to reduce production costs to produce biodiesel priced.